2. The creation of nation-states and nationalism can create centrifugal and centripetal forces.
-can create a sense of unity in shared history
-can marginalize other nations /ethnicities in favor of one
3. Before the Peace of Westphalia, European monarchs ruled over nations. Borders and Boundaries played small roles. After the Thirty Years War and the signing of the treaty, this changed the way Absolute Rulers defined their role: they went from ruling nations to ruling territorial states-areas with borders and boundaries.
4. After the French Revolution, people demanded that sovereignty lie with the community of people, not one leader. Democracy and self-rule became the norm and people (nations) wanted control of their states.
5. Nationalism can be defined in two ways, pride and loyalty in your nation OR state.
Looking Ahead: What potential problems will arise with colonialism and the diffusion of European Nation-States to other regions and nations?