Read this: gerrymandering 101
Gerrymander-to manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class. Partisan gerrymandering makes the distribution of voters more consequential than their raw number, resulting in wasted votes.
Redistricting-Redistricting is the process of drawing United States electoral district boundaries, often in response to population changes determined by the results of the decennial census.
Packing-to concentrate as many voters of one type into a single electoral district to reduce their influence in other districts.
Cracking-involves spreading out voters of a particular type among many districts in order to deny them a sufficiently large voting bloc in any particular district.
First, it's important to understand that there are two main types of gerrymandering, packing and cracking. Packing involves the concentration of voters to reduce their influence in other districts; so, for example, Democrats might gerrymander to group together as many republicans as possible so as to win the remaining districts. Cracking is when voters of one party are spread out to eliminate a large concentration of votes. So, Republicans might gerrymander to spread out the democratic voting base to reduce their impact. Further, there is a difference between gerrymandering and redistricting. While redistricting may be inherent to gerrymandering, gerrymandering is NOT inherent to redistricting. It is entirely possible to have unbiased redistricting while eliminating gerrymandering altogether.
2. Unitary v. Federal
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